Membrane Biological Reactor
Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has emerged as a wastewater treatment technology of choice over the activated sludge process (ASP), which has been the conventional municipal wastewater technology over the last century. MBR is, in fact, one of the most important innovations in wastewater treatment, as it overcomes the drawbacks of the conventional ASP, including large space requirement for secondary clarifiers, liquid–solid separation issues, production of excess sludge, and limitations with removal of recalcitrant. MBRs have been used for both municipal and industrial wastewater treatment and reclamation. An MBR is a hybrid of a conventional biological treatment system and physical liquid–solid separation using membrane filtration in one system.
The MBR technology provides the following advantages over ASP: High-quality effluent, higher volumetric loading rates, shorter hydraulic retention times (HRT), longer solid retention times (SRT), less sludge production, and potential for simultaneous nitrification/denitrification in long SRTs. The inclusion of membranes in the system eliminates the need for secondary clarifiers. The elimination of secondary clarifiers and operation of MBR at a shorter HRT results in significantly reduced plant area requirements..